Searching in Connexion

Searching OCLC WorldCat: Old Standbys and New Ways to Search Which May Prove Useful

(6-3-2005)

 

by Frank Newton, Gardner-Webb University Library

 

This information is from the following OCLC sources, though some of the examples are original:

(1) The new Reference Card ("Connexion: Searching WorldCat Quick Reference") at

http://www.oclc.org/support/documentation/worldcat/searching/refcard/searchworldcatquickref.pdf (pdf format) or at

http://www.oclc.org/support/documentation/worldcat/searching/refcard/default.htm (htm format)

(2) The tutorial at

http://www.oclc.org/support/training/connexion/client/tutorial/  .

(3) Technical Bulletin 251 at  http://www.oclc.org/support/documentation/worldcat/tb/251/  .

 

All of those OCLC documents contain additional information.  The Reference Card is recommended especially for details on stopwords, truncation and wildcards, Boolean operators, and the list of the new specific material type qualifiers (see #11 below).

 

The good news is that the historically oldest and shortest ways of searching WorldCat are unchanged: ISBN, OCLC #, 3,2,2,1 & 4,3,1, etc.  The most sweeping change is that the index labels -- ti for title, au for author, su for subject, and all the others which are shown below with examples -- now have to be followed by obligatory punctuation, either a colon: or an equals sign=.  A colon: indicates a keyword search: just one word anywhere in the field, and keyword searches can be anded together.  An equals sign= indicates a phrase search; these cannot be anded together.  When a w is added before the equals sign, it is called a "whole phrase search."  As usual, a keyword search is especially useful when the field contains a word that is fairly precise and not real common (e.g. Tolkien).  Hopefully, the examples will give you some hints on when these different types of searches might come in handy.  The old standbies plus scan ti= (with the equals sign) will still be our mainstays.

 

1. AUTHOR SEARCHES

            * 1a)  Derived searches are exactly the same!!

            4,3,1                                                                roos,fra,d

            =4,3,1                                                              =inte,rev,s

            * 1b)  Keyword and phrase searches.

* The colon searches (au: and cn: and pn:) are author keyword searches.  They will find one word anywhere in the author's name.  au:truman and pn:truman will find both Margaret Truman and Truman Capote.

* You can use a whole phrase search auw=, cnw=, or pnw= for greater precision when you know the established heading for the author.  You might search pnw=strauss johann 1804-1849 if  you know the piece you are cataloging was composed by Johann Strauss Sr.and not by his more prolific son, Johann Strauss Jr. the waltz-composer (Junior's heading is Strauss, Johann, 1825-1899).

* Conversely, you use the equals search without the w (au= or pn=) when you want to include the author's first name but don't want to worry about the dates.

* 1b-i)  "au" searches every kind of author, but is easier to remember. In the colon search example, you are searching for recordings of music composed by Beethoven and conducted by Bernstein.

            au:                                                                   au:beethoven and au:bernstein

            au=                                                                  au=king stephen

            auw=                                                               auw=strauss, johann, 1804-1849

* 1b-ii)  "cn" searches for corporate authors (as I like to call them; more officially, corporate names).  With cnw= you begin at the beginning of the corporate author heading.  With cn=  you begin at the beginning of any subfield within the corporate author heading (including subfield ≠a), but you cannot include words from more than one subfield. (In the example, the actual heading for the IRS is United States. Internal Revenue Service.)

            cn:                                                                   cn:disney

            cn=                                                                  cn=internal revenue service

            cnw=                                                                cnw=united states internal revenue service

            * 1b-iii)  "pn" searches for personal authors.

            pn:                                                                   pn:beethoven and pn:bernstein

            pn=                                                                  pn=king stephen

            pnw=                                                               pnw=strauss, johann, 1804-1849

2. AUTHOR/TITLE SEARCHES

            4,4                                                                   hemi,fare

            au:.........  and ti:........ (longer alternative)     au:hemingway and ti:farewell

3. CALL NUMBER SEARCHES (Library of Congress class number, i.e. subfield ≠a)

            lc:                                                                    lc:ps3515.e37

            lc=                                                                   lc=ps3515.e37

* Hopefully, the difference between lc: and lc= is not important. (The example is the call number for Ernest Hemingway.)

4. DATE QUALIFIERS

            /                                                                       /1980                           /1981-1990

            and yr:            (new longer alternative)         and yr:1980                and yr:1981-1990

            * "and yr:" searches Date1 only.

5. GENRE/AUDIENCE QUALIFIERS (NEW)

            and mt:                                                            and mt:bio [limits to biographies]

            and mt=                                                           and mt=biography  [ditto]

* OCLC considers the genre/audience qualifiers to be specific material type qualifiers.  For more information and the difference between mt: and mt=, see #11 below.

6. GOVERNMENT DOCUMENT NUMBER SEARCHES [for U.S. govt. docs., the SuDocs number]

            gn:                                                                   gn:i192y65nx

* Enter all the letters and numbers, the same as with the new publisher number search. The example shows that you would search SuDocs  I  19.2:Y  65nx as gn:i192y65nx.

7. ISBN SEARCHES

            (no prefix, no hyphens)                                   123456789X               [the same!!]]

            bn:                   (new longer alternative)         bn:123456789x

8. ISSN SEARCHES

            in:                                                                    in:1234-5678

            * Include the hyphen. Used in cataloging periodicals.

9. LANGUAGE QUALIFIERS

            la:                                                                    and la:spa

 

10. LCCN SEARCHES (Library of Congress Card Number, also known as L. C. Control No.)

            ln:                                                                    ln:32-14   OR    ln:32000014

* This is useful when searching gift books from the 1950's and 1960's, which often have LCCN's on the back of the title page but not ISBN's.

* Either (a) include the hyphen, or else (b) omit the hyphen and pad with leading zeroes if there are fewer than six numbers after the hyphen (see example).

11. MATERIAL TYPE QUALIFIERS aka SPECIFIC MATERIAL TYPE QUALIFIERS (NEW)

            and mt:                                                            and mt:dvv    [limit to DVD's]

            and mt=                                                           and mt=dvd video   [ditto]

* After mt: you use the new three-letter codes.  After mt= you use the full word or phrase, but it has to be the exact terminology which OCLC provides. Complete lists of the three-letter codes and the full word or phrase expressions are in the new Reference Card "Connexion: Searching WorldCat Quick Reference" (see the link given above).  Additional examples using the three-letter codes are:

and mt:                                                            and mt:cda [limit to compact disc sound recs.]

and mt:                                                            and mt:lps  [limit to 33 1/3 phonodisks]

and mt:                                                            and mt:lpt  [limit to large print text]

and mt:                                                            and mt:nsr  [limit to spoken word sound recs.]

and mt:                                                            and mt:vhs  [limit to VHS videocassettes]

12. OCLC # SEARCHES -- the same!!!

            #                                                                      #12345678

            *                                                                      *12345678

            no:                   (new longer alternative)         no:12345678

13. PUBLISHER SEARCHES

            pb:                                                                   pb:Greenwood

* pb: is a keyword search which finds your word anywhere in the publisher's name.

14. PUBLISHER NUMBER SEARCHES

* These used to be called music number searches, but they changed the name. You can also use this search for the numbers which publishers assign to videos.

            mn:                                                                  mn:acs8512

            mn=                                                                 mn=acs8512

* This search searches the 028 field and is especially useful with sound recordings.

* Hopefully, the difference between mn: and mn= is not important.

* New improvement: it used to be we could only enter the first two letters and the first ten numbers.  Now we  enter all the letters and numbers which make up the publisher number. Example: the side of the compact disc says "CO 1979-AB5-1."  We used to search it as mn:co197951.  Now we search it as mn:co1979ab51.

15. SUBJECT SEARCHES

            * "su" searches every kind of subject heading, but is easier to remember.

            su:                                                                   su:calculus

            su=                                                                  su=personal narratives confederate

            suw=                                                                [example is given on the next line]

                      suw=united states history civil war 1861-1865 personal narratives confederate    

 

            * "hl" searches only Library of Congress subject headings.

            hl:                                                                    hl:calculus

            hl=                                                                   hl=personal narratives confederate

            hlw=                                                                [example is given on the next line]

                      hlw=united states history civil war 1861-1865 personal narratives confederate

* The colon searches (su: and hl:) are subject keyword searches.  They will find one word anywhere in the subject heading.

* With hlw= or suw= you begin at the beginning of the subject heading.  With hl= or su= you begin at the beginning of any subfield within the subject heading (including subfield ≠a), but you cannot include words from more than one subfield.

* The advantage of using the hl index label is then you don't have to worry about some of the subjects being Sears subject headings or LC children's headings or Medical Subject Headings. They'll all be regular LC subject headings, "our kind of subject headings."

16. TITLE SEARCHES

            3,2,2,1                                                             gon,wi,th,w

            ti:                                                                     ti:nanotechnology

            scan ti=                                                           scan ti=gone with the wind a critical

            scan tiw=                                                         scan tiw=gone with the wind

* ti: is a title keyword search.  It searches for one word anywhere in the title.

* scan ti= is the equivalent of scan searching in Passport, CatME, and version 1.20 of Connexion Client, and we can use scan ti= in most of the situations where we would have used scan ti before.  It brings up a screenful of adjacent titles that begin this way, and you can include subtitles in the part you type.  I like scan ti= better than scan tiw= because scan ti= can include the subtitle.  scan tiw= searches only subfield ≠a (the title proper).  If you are not cataloging Gone With the Wind by Margaret Mitchell, but instead you are cataloging Gone With the Wind : a Critical Introduction by Karen L. Brock, scan tiw=gone with the wind a critical [notice the w=] will not retrieve the record you need if "A critical introduction" was put in subfield ≠b, but scan ti=gone with the wind a critical will find it.

* A new feature of searching WorldCat is that you can leave off the scan and just type ti=.  If you leave off the scan, it skips the step where you browse a list of adjacent titles and takes you straight to the list of matching bib. records.

17. WEBSITE ADDRESS SEARCHES (OCLC calls them "Access method" searches)

            am:                                                                  am:docsouth

* You use a website address search if you need to catalog a website and you already know its web address. For instance, if you want to put a bib. record in your library catalog which will point to UNC-Chapel Hill's website "Documenting the American South" and you know its web address is http://docsouth.unc.edu/  , you can search am:docsouth  .

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

18. A NOTE ON SEARCHING THE AUTHORITY FILE IN OCLC

* Currently, there aren't any equals sign searches in the authority file.  Apparently, you use a colon for everything.  So the procedure for searching for the authority record for United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865 -- Personal narratives, Confederate is completely different from searching for bib. records with this subject heading.  You find the authority record by searching subfield a only: scan su:united states and then in the "Expanded Term" box you put in the remainder history -- civil war 1861-1865 -- personal narratives confederate [dashes optional, but be sure to leave out the commas].


Material Type Qualifiers

 

 

The newly introduced material type qualifiers permit you to narrow a WorldCat search to some rather specific formats (e.g. DVD, microfiche).  Here are a selection of them, from the new Searching WorldCat Quick Reference Card (for Connexion, updated May 2005).

 

These qualifiers are listed at the end of the Quick Reference in a table headed "Qualify Searches by Specific Material Types" -- except for the very broad MARC format qualifiers and mt:url (internet resources), which are listed in an earlier table headed simply "Qualifiers."

 

The Quick Reference says you can also use mt= instead of mt: but then you have to spell out the specific material types (using the terminology OCLC favors) instead of abbreviating them.

 

The terminology which is used in the list below is taken partly from OCLC's list of material type qualifiers -- including the terminology given below in quotation marks inside parentheses ("  "); and partly from the terminology which AACR2 has us use in the 300 field; and partly from other general or widespread usage.

 

* Asterisks mark the material type qualifiers which seem most likely to be useful to me (not that we'll need them real often).

 

(Material Type Qualifiers, first list: Alphabetized by the Spelled-Out Format)

 

and mt:rep                    art reproduction

* and mt:atl                   atlas

and mt:bks  OR  /bks     books [but actually it means any published text, including microforms, websites, etc.]

and mt:bks and mt:nmc not mt:url                 books [this should come close to limiting the search

to actual books: nmc means "not microform" while not mt:url means "not internet resources"]

and mt:brl                     Braille

and mt:map  OR /map    cartographic materials (atlases, maps, and globes)

and mt:cdc                    CD-ROM ("CD for computer")

and mt:cht                     chart

and mt:cig                     clip art, online image or graphics

* and mt:cda                 compact disc audio

and mt:com  OR /com    computer files

and mt:cgm                   computer game

and mt:312                   diskette (3 1/2 inch)

and mt:514                   diskette (5 1/4 inch)

* and mt:dvv                 DVD (digital videodisc)

and mt:flm                     filmstrip

* and mt:crd                 flash cards

and mt:gam                   game

* and mt:glb                  globe

 

and mt:kit                     kit (see definition and discussion in Bibliographic Formats and Standards

under "Fixed Field: Type (Type of Material)," especially the paragraphs headed "Multiple kinds of material and collections" and "o : Kit."  Note that since not all things which are called kits in libraryland are coded as kits in their bib. records, it follows that this qualifier is not as useful as you might think, and should be used with caution.)

and mt:lpt                     large print text

and mt:upl                     looseleaf publication

and mt:mss                   manuscript (unpublished text)

and mt:mcm                  map (manuscript map)

* and mt:pcm                map (published map)

* and mt:mfc                 microfiche

* and mt:mfl                  microfilm

and mt:mic                    microform [including microfiche, microfilm, and micro-opaque]

and mt:mcd                   micro-opaque [including microcards?]

and mt:mix  OR /mix       mixed materials

and mt:new                   newspaper

and mt:per                    periodical

---                                phonodisks or records -- see sound discs

and mt:pht                    photograph

and mt:ngr                    picture (non-machine-readable, not stored on computer) ("2-D image")

and mt:grp                    picture (non-machine-readable, not stored on computer) ("graphic")

and mt:pic                     picture (non-machine-readable, not stored on computer) ("picture")

and mt:art                     realia ("3-D object/artifact")

and mt:rbj                     realia ("real object")

and mt:mot                   reel-to-reel motion picture ("film")

and mt:rtr                      reel-to-reel sound tape

and mt:rll                      roll (early type of sound recording)

and mt:sco  OR /sco       scores (any)

and mt:mmu                  scores (manuscript music)

and mt:pmu                   scores (published music)

and mt:ser  OR /ser        serials [including newspapers, periodicals, etc.]

and mt:sld                     slides

and mt:cas                    sound cassette (audiocassette)

and mt:lps                     sound disc (LP, 33 1/3 rpm)

and mt:45s                    sound disc (45 rpm)

and mt:78s                    sound disc (78 rpm)

and mt:rec  OR /rec        sound recordings (any)

and mt:msr                    sound recordings (musical)

and mt:nsr                     sound recordings (non-musical)

and mt:toy                    toy

and mt:trn                     transparencies

and mt:vca                    videocassette (any)

and mt:bta                    videocassette (Beta)

and mt:pal                     videocassette (PAL)

and mt:vhs                    videocassette (VHS)

and mt:vdc                    videodisc (any)

* and mt:dvv                 videodisc (DVD)

and mt:vid                     videorecording [including both videocassettes and videodiscs]

and mt:vis  OR /vis         visual materials [including filmstrips, motion pictures, slides, trans-

                                      parencies, videorecordings, pictures, etc.]

and mt:wxc                   wax cylinder (early type of sound recording)

* and mt:url                  website ("internet resources," not listed with the other specific material

type qualifiers, but rather with the MARC formats in an earlier table headed simply "Qualifiers")

and mt:upw                   website ("updating website," listed under "serial publications")

and mt:web                   website ("web access," listed under "all material types")

 

 

(Material Type Qualifiers, second list: Alphabetized by the Three-Letter Code)

 

and mt:45s                    sound disc : analog (45 rpm) (little black phonodisks with one song on each side)

and mt:78s                    sound disc : analog (78 rpm)

and mt:312                   diskette (3 1/2 inch)

and mt:514                   diskette (5 1/4 inch)

and mt:art                     realia ("3-D object/artifact")

and mt:atl                      atlas

and mt:bks  OR  /bks     books [but actually it means any published text, including microforms, websites, etc.]

and mt:bks and mt:nmc not mt:url                 books [this should come close to limiting the search

to actual books: nmc means "not microform" while not mt:url means "not internet resources"]

and mt:brl                     Braille

and mt:bta                    videocassette (Beta)

and mt:cas                    sound cassette (audiocassette)

and mt:cda                    compact disc audio (sound disc : digital)

and mt:cdc                    CD-ROM ("CD for computer")

and mt:cgm                   computer game

and mt:cht                     chart

and mt:cig                     clip art, online image or graphics

and mt:com  OR /com    computer files

and mt:crd                    flash cards

and mt:dvv                    videodisc (DVD)

and mt:flm                     filmstrip

and mt:gam                   game

and mt:glb                     globe

and mt:grp                    picture (non-machine-readable, not stored on computer) ("graphic")

and mt:kit                     kit (see definition and discussion in Bibliographic Formats and Standards

under "Fixed Field: Type (Type of Material)," especially the paragraphs headed "Multiple kinds of material and collections" and "o : Kit."  Note that since not all things which are called kits in libraryland are coded as kits in their bib. records, it follows that this qualifier is not as useful as you might think, and should be used with caution.)

and mt:lps                     sound disc : analog (LP, 33 1/3 rpm) [long-playing black vinyl phonodisks]

and mt:lpt                     large print text

and mt:map  OR /map    cartographic materials (not just maps, also atlases and globes)

and mt:mcd                   micro-opaque [including microcards?]

and mt:mcm                  map (manuscript map)

and mt:mfc                    microfiche

and mt:mfl                     microfilm

and mt:mic                    microform [including microfiche, microfilm, and micro-opaque]

and mt:mix  OR /mix       mixed materials

and mt:mmu                  scores (manuscript music)

and mt:mot                   reel-to-reel motion picture ("film")

and mt:msr                    sound recordings (musical)

and mt:mss                   manuscript (unpublished text)

and mt:new                   newspaper

and mt:ngr                    picture (non-machine-readable, not stored on computer) ("2-D image")

and mt:nsr                     sound recordings (non-musical)

and mt:pal                     videocassette (PAL)

and mt:pcm                   map (published map)

and mt:per                    periodical

and mt:pht                    photograph

and mt:pic                     picture (non-machine-readable, not stored on computer) ("picture")

and mt:pmu                   scores (published music)

and mt:rbj                     realia ("real object")

and mt:rec  OR /rec        sound recordings (any)

and mt:rep                    art reproduction

and mt:rll                      roll (early type of sound recording)

and mt:rtr                      reel-to-reel sound tape

and mt:sco  OR /sco       scores (any)

and mt:ser  OR /ser        serials [including newspapers, periodicals, etc.]

and mt:sld                     slides

and mt:toy                    toy

and mt:trn                     transparencies

and mt:upl                     looseleaf publication

and mt:upw                   website ("updating website," listed under "serial publications")

and mt:url                     website ("internet resources," not listed in the Quick Reference with the

other specific material type qualifiers, but rather with the MARC formats in an earlier table headed simply "Qualifiers")

and mt:vca                    videocassette (any: Beta, U-matic, VHS)

and mt:vdc                    videodisc (any)

and mt:vhs                    videocassette (VHS)

and mt:vid                     videorecording [including both videocassettes and videodiscs]

and mt:vis  OR /vis         visual materials [including filmstrips, motion pictures, slides, trans-

                                      parencies, videorecordings, pictures, etc.]

and mt:web                   website ("web access," listed under "all material types")

and mt:wxc                   wax cylinder (early type of sound recording)

 

 

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