Whenever you summarize, paraphrase or quote another author's material you must include a brief citation next to it within the text of your paper to tell the reader what information you have borrowed and from where. That brief in-text citation tells the reader that the complete citation for the borrowed material can be found at the end of your paper in the Bibliography. Turabian gives two different methods for citing within text (consult your instructor for their preference): 1.) parenthetical citations-reference list style or simply "reference list style" and 2.) notes-bibliography style or "bibliography style."
1.) Reference List StyleTo do an in-text citation using the "reference list style," place a parenthetical citation (author, date and page number(s) all in parentheses) at the end of the sentence or paragraph of borrowed material.
An example of a in-text citation using the reference list style:
He argues that "in an uncertain world, printed materials can be put to use in ways that make them powerful" (Johns 1998, 623).
When you write (Johns 1998, 623) at the end of a sentence, the reader knows that you have borrowed information from an article by an author named Johns in a work published in 1998 and that the information was found on page 623. Readers know that they can find the full citation to that work by Johns in the bibliography at the end of the paper. Note: In the in-text citation, place a comma after the date.
2.) Bibliography Style"Bibliography style" is also known as a footnote or endnote. To do an in-text citation using the "bibliography style," place a superscript number at the end of the sentence or paragraph of borrowed information and then cite the source in a footnote (located at the bottom of the page) or an endnote (located at the end of a paper or chapter). See printable directions on doing superscripts in Word 2003 or Word 2007. In footnotes/endnotes, indent the first line of the citation information which includes the author, title, publication info, and the relevant page numbers. Note: Though a footnote/endnote includes all relevant bibliographic information, a Bibliography is still required unless otherwise noted by your your instructor.
An example of a bibliography style citation:
He argues that "in an uncertain world, printed materials can be put to use in ways that make them powerful."1
1. Adrian Johns. The Nature of the Book: Print and Knowledge in the Making (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 623.
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