Section 3. Citing Sources in APA Style
What is a Reference List?
The reference list is located at the end of your paper. It is an alphabetical
list of works you consulted and cited within your paper. Your reference list
citations should contain all the neccesary information to enable someone else
to find the sources you have used, including:
- Author or entity (corporate author) that created the work
- Publication date
- Whether the work is part of a larger work (such as an article in a journal
or newspaper, or an essay in an encyclopedia)
- Place of publication
- Any other information that would help in finding your source (such as a
web page address)
Formatting a Reference List
The sources in the reference list are listed alphabetically by the author's
last name. Citations are double-spaced and a hanging indentation is used. To view and print formatting directions for setting up
the Reference List, choose Microsoft Word 2003 or Microsoft Word 2007.
Example of a Reference List
Some general rules for citations:
For more rules and examples of citations, visit USM
Libraries' APA Style Guide or view a copy of APA 6th ed. at the Information
- Include the doi (digital object identifyer) if available for online sources. If no doi is available, include the URL for the website (if applicable).
- It is no longer necessary to include the database title or access date if the article is retrieved from a subscription source.
- Titles of books and journals appear in italics.
- Article titles and titles of book chapters, essays, and short stories
do NOT appear in "quotes."
- If an author isn't given, begin with the corporate author (the sponsoring
organization) or the title.
- Give the initials of the author's first and middle name rather than
spelling out the full name.
- If there are multiple authors, the single-author entries with the
same surname precede the multiple-author entries
- If you have multiple works written by the same author, arrange your
citations by the years of publications with the earliest date appearing
first. If the works have the same year of publication alphabetize
- Include the publisher's city and abbreviated state, except if the publisher is a university and the name of the state is included in the name of the university.