1) APA requires a hanging indent for its citations.
2) PLEASE BE SURE TO DOUBLE SPACE CITATIONS. (For space saving reasons, the citations below are single spaced.)
3) Entitle your reference sheet "References."
4) Alphabetize the works.
5) Notice one of the major changes in the APA 6th edition is the requirement for a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) in the citation for print and electronic sources when available. For more information see the "Electronic Information" section.
If your source does not appear on this sheet, consult the APA guide available on Reserve or at the library assistance desk in the Cook Library Learning Commons.. Also see the USM Libraries' tutorial on APA formatting. For in text citations see: http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/research/apaintext.html.
Typical book entry -- single author
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Festinger, L., Riecken, H., & Schachter, S. (1956). When prophecy fails. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Roeder, K., Howdeshell, J., Fulton, L., Lochhead, M., Craig, K., Peterson, R., ...Applin, M. (1967). Nerve cells and insect behavior: A manual. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Institute of Financial Education. (1982). Managing personal funds. Chicago: Midwestern.
No author identified
Experimental psychology. (1938). New York: Holt.
Citing items in an anthology/chapter in edited book
Rubenstein, J. P. (1967). The effect of television violence on small children. In B.F. Kane (Ed.), Television and juvenile psychological development (pp. 112-134). New York: American Psychological Society.
Reprinted or republished chapter
Freud, S. (1961). The ego and the id. In J. Strachey (Ed. and Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19, pp. 3-66). London: Hogarth Press. (Original work published 1923)
Chapter in a volume in a series
Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent-child interaction. In P. H. Mussen (Series Ed.) & E. M. Hetherington (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of Child Psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development (pp. 1-101). New York: Wiley.
Citing multivolume works
Wilson, J. G., & Fraser, F. C. (Eds.). (1977-1978). Handbook of teratology (Vols. 1-4). New York: Plenum Press.
Grice, H. P., & Gregory, R. L. (Eds.). (1968). Early language development. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Citing specific editions of a book
Brockett, O. (1987). History of the theater (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Freud, S. (1970) An outline of psychoanalysis (J. Strachey, Trans.). New York: Norton. (Original work published 1940)
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1991). A motivational approach to self: Integration in personality. In R. Dienstbier (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Vol. 38. Perspectives on Motivation (pp. 237-288). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Cynx, J., Williams, H., & Nottebohm, F. (1992). Hemispheric differences in avian song discrimination. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 89, 1372-1375.
Citing articles in journals with continuous pagination
Passons, W. (1967). Predictive validates of the ACT, SAT, and high school grades for first semester GPA and freshman courses. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 27, 1143-1144.
Citing articles in journals with non-continuous pagination
Sawyer, J. (1966). Measurement and prediction, clinical and statistical. Psychological Bulletin, 66(3), 178-200.
Citing articles in monthly periodicals
Chandler-Crisp, S. (1988, May) "Aerobic writing": A writing practice model. Writing Lab Newsletter, pp. 9-11.
Citing articles in weekly periodicals
Kauffmann, S. (1993, October 18). On films: Class consciousness. The New Republic, p.30.
Monson, M. (1993, September 16). Urbana firm obstacle to office project. The Champaign-Urbana News-Gazette, pp. A1, A8.
No author identified
Clinton puts 'human face' on health-care plan. (1993, September 16). The New York Times, p. B1.
Reprinted or republished articles
Clark, G., & Zimmerman, E. (1988). Professional roles and activities as models for art education. In S. Dobbs (Ed.), Research readings for discipline-based art education (pp. 3-18). Reston, VA: NAEA. (Reprinted from Studies in Art Education, 19 (1986), 34-39)
ERIC Documents (Report available from the Educational Resources Information Center)
Mead, J. V. (1992). Looking at old photographs: Investigating the teacher tales that novice teachers bring with them (Report No. NCRTL-RR-92-4). East Lansing, MI: National Center for Research on Teacher Learning. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED346082)
Dissertation obtained from Proquest's Dissertations & Theses
Saunders, M. D. (1990). Eastern's pilot rebellion: Patterns of conflict rhetoric preceding the 1989 pilot walkout at Eastern Airlines. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Digital Dissertations database. (Publication No. AAT 9103113).
Dissertation abstracted in DAI:
Ross, D. F. (1990). Unconscious transference and mistaken identity: When a witness misidentifies a familiar but innocent person from a lineup. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section A. Humanities and Social Sciences, 51(10), 417.
Name v. Name, Volume Source Page (Court Date).
Lessard v. Schmidt, 349 F. Supp. 1078 (E.D. Wis. 1972).
Name of Act, Volume Source Â§ section number (year).
Mental Health Systems Act, 42 U.S.C. Â§ 9401 (1988).
Burns, H. (1993, August 12). Interview by P. A. Brannock [Tape recording]. Oral History Project (F106.D32). University Archives Mississippiana Collection, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg.
If there is only a transcription and not a recording then cite as follows:
Burns, H. (1993, August 12). Interview with Helen Burns/Interviewer: Peggy A. Brannock. Oral History Project (Vol. 289), University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg.
(N. Archer, personal interview, October 11, 1993)
Citing films or videotapes
Weir, P.B. (Producer), & Harrison, B.F. (Director). (1992). Levels of consciousness [Motion picture]. Boston, MA: Filmways.
Writer, A. (Date of copyright). Title of song [Recorded by artist if different from writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording: CD, record, cassette, etc.]. Location: Label. (Recording date if different than copyright)
Lang, k. d. (2008). Shadow and the frame. On Watershed [CD]. New York, NY: Nonesuch Records.
The type of medium can be, but is not limited to the following: online journals, Web sites or Web pages, newsgoups, Web- or e-mail based discussion groups or Web or e-mail based newsletters.
McCarver, P.L. (2001). History of New England honey bees. Retrieved from http://www.ebrary.co.uk/html/bees.asp
or (if DOI is available)
McCarver, P.L. (2001). History of New England honey bees. doi: 10.1036/0071393722
Full-Text Article with DOI assigned
Jacobson, J. W., Mulick, J. A., & Schwartz, A. A. (1995). A history of facilitated communication: Science, pseudoscience, and antiscience. American Psychologist, 50, 750-765. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.50.9.750
Full-Text Article without a DOI
Bianco, A. & Zellner, W. (2003, October 6). Is Wal-Mart too powerful? Harvard Business Review, 38, 100-104. Retrieved from http://hbr.harvardbusiness.org/
Article in an Internet-only newsletter
Waufton, K.K. (1999, April). Dealing with anthrax. Telehealth News, 3(2). Retrieved from http://www.telehearlth.net/subscribe/newslettr_5b.html#1
Internet technical or research reports
University of California, San Francisco, Institute for Health and Aging. (1996, November). Chronic care in America: A 21st century challenge (Report No. here if available). Retrieved from the Robert Wood Foundation website: http://www.rwjf.org/library/chrcare
Document created by private organization, no page numbers, no date
Greater Hattiesburg Civic Awareness Group, Task Force on Sheltered Programs. (n.d.). Fund-raising efforts. Retrieved from http://www.hattiesburgcag.org
Document from university program or department
McNeese, M.N. (2001). Using technology in educational settings. Retrieved from University of Southern Mississippi, Educational Leadership and Research website: http://www-dept.usm.edu/~eda/
Message posted to a newsgroup, online forum, discussion group or mailing list
Zelner, T. (2009, January 8). Re: Librarians and Information Literacy [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from http://www.yahooforums.com/comments/infolitforum/librarians#comments
Blair, J. (2008, June 5). Re: Proxy server problems [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from http://tech.groups/yahoo.com/group/techmessages/580
Citing computer software
Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (Version 2) [Computer Software]. Englewood, NJ: Biostat.
Disclaimer: USM Libraries offer this handout as a guide only. We cannot offer suggestions or interpretations about citations. Please refer to the actual Style Manual or your teacher for clarifications.
Last modified: September 2009