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APA Style Guide 6th Edition

Getting started:
1) APA requires a hanging indent for its citations.
2) PLEASE BE SURE TO DOUBLE SPACE CITATIONS. (For space saving reasons, the citations below are single spaced.)
3) Entitle your reference sheet "References."
4) Alphabetize the works.
5) Notice one of the major changes in the APA 6th edition is the requirement for a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) in the citation for print and electronic sources when available. For more information see the "Electronic Information" section.

If your source does not appear on this sheet, consult the APA guide available on Reserve or at the library assistance desk in the Cook Library Learning Commons.. Also see the USM Libraries' tutorial on APA formatting. For in text citations see:


Typical book entry -- single author

Arnheim, R. (1971). Art and visual perception. Berkeley: University of California Press.

American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Multiple authors

Festinger, L., Riecken, H., & Schachter, S. (1956). When prophecy fails.  Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Roeder, K., Howdeshell, J., Fulton, L., Lochhead, M., Craig, K., Peterson, R., ...Applin, M. (1967). Nerve cells and insect behavior: A manual. Cambridge, MA:   Harvard University Press.

Corporate authorship

Institute of Financial Education. (1982). Managing personal funds. Chicago:  Midwestern.

No author identified

Experimental psychology. (1938). New York: Holt.

Citing items in an anthology/chapter in edited book

Rubenstein, J. P. (1967). The effect of television violence on small children. In B.F. Kane (Ed.), Television and juvenile psychological development (pp. 112-134). New York: American Psychological Society.

Reprinted or republished chapter

Freud, S. (1961). The ego and the id. In J. Strachey (Ed. and Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19, pp. 3-66). London: Hogarth Press. (Original work published 1923)

Chapter in a volume in a series

Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent-child interaction. In P. H. Mussen (Series Ed.) & E. M. Hetherington (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of Child Psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development (pp. 1-101). New York: Wiley.

Citing multivolume works

Wilson, J. G., & Fraser, F. C. (Eds.). (1977-1978). Handbook of teratology (Vols. 1-4). New York: Plenum Press.

Edited collections

Higgins, J. (Ed.). (1988). Psychology. New York: Norton.


Grice, H. P., & Gregory, R. L. (Eds.). (1968). Early language development. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Citing specific editions of a book

Brockett, O. (1987). History of the theater (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Translated works

Freud, S. (1970) An outline of psychoanalysis (J. Strachey, Trans.). New York: Norton. (Original work published 1940)


Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1991). A motivational approach to self: Integration in personality. In R. Dienstbier (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Vol. 38. Perspectives on Motivation (pp. 237-288). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.


Cynx, J., Williams, H., & Nottebohm, F. (1992). Hemispheric differences in avian song discrimination. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 89, 1372-1375.


Citing articles in journals with continuous pagination

Passons, W. (1967). Predictive validates of the ACT, SAT, and high school grades for first semester GPA and freshman courses. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 27, 1143-1144.

Citing articles in journals with non-continuous pagination

Sawyer, J. (1966). Measurement and prediction, clinical and statistical. Psychological Bulletin, 66(3), 178-200.

Citing articles in monthly periodicals

Chandler-Crisp, S. (1988, May) "Aerobic writing": A writing practice model. Writing Lab Newsletter, pp. 9-11.

Citing articles in weekly periodicals

Kauffmann, S. (1993, October 18). On films: Class consciousness. The New Republic, p.30.

Newspaper articles

Monson, M. (1993, September 16). Urbana firm obstacle to office project. The Champaign-Urbana News-Gazette, pp. A1, A8.

No author identified

Clinton puts 'human face' on health-care plan. (1993, September 16). The New York Times, p. B1.

Reprinted or republished articles

Clark, G., & Zimmerman, E. (1988). Professional roles and activities as models for art education. In S. Dobbs (Ed.), Research readings for discipline-based art education (pp. 3-18). Reston, VA: NAEA. (Reprinted from Studies in Art Education, 19 (1986), 34-39)

ERIC Documents (Report available from the Educational Resources Information Center)

Mead, J. V. (1992). Looking at old photographs: Investigating the teacher tales that novice teachers bring with them (Report No. NCRTL-RR-92-4). East Lansing, MI: National Center for Research on Teacher Learning. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED346082)


Dissertation obtained from Proquest's Dissertations & Theses

Saunders, M. D. (1990). Eastern's pilot rebellion: Patterns of conflict rhetoric preceding the 1989 pilot walkout at Eastern Airlines. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Digital Dissertations database. (Publication No. AAT 9103113).

Dissertation abstracted in DAI:

Ross, D. F. (1990). Unconscious transference and mistaken identity: When a witness misidentifies a familiar but innocent person from a lineup. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section A.  Humanities and Social Sciences, 51(10), 417.

Legal Documents

Court Decisions

Name v. Name, Volume Source Page (Court Date).

Lessard v. Schmidt, 349 F. Supp. 1078 (E.D. Wis. 1972).


Name of Act, Volume Source § section number (year).

Mental Health Systems Act, 42 U.S.C. § 9401 (1988).

Other Media

Citing interviews

Burns, H. (1993, August 12). Interview by P. A. Brannock [Tape recording].  Oral History Project (F106.D32). University Archives Mississippiana Collection, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg.

If there is only a transcription and not a recording then cite as follows:

Burns, H. (1993, August 12).  Interview with Helen Burns/Interviewer: Peggy A. Brannock.  Oral History Project (Vol. 289), University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg.

(N. Archer, personal interview, October 11, 1993)

Citing films or videotapes

Weir, P.B. (Producer), & Harrison, B.F. (Director). (1992). Levels of consciousness [Motion picture]. Boston, MA: Filmways.

Citing recordings

Writer, A. (Date of copyright). Title of song [Recorded by artist if different from writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording: CD, record, cassette, etc.]. Location: Label. (Recording date if different than copyright)

Lang, k. d. (2008).  Shadow and the frame.  On Watershed [CD].  New York, NY:  Nonesuch Records.

Electronic Information

The type of medium can be, but is not limited to the following: online journals, Web sites or Web pages, newsgoups, Web- or e-mail based discussion groups or Web or e-mail based newsletters.

Electronic Book
McCarver, P.L. (2001). History of New England honey bees.  Retrieved from

or  (if DOI is available)

McCarver, P.L. (2001). History of New England honey bees.  doi: 10.1036/0071393722

Full-Text Article with DOI assigned

Jacobson, J. W., Mulick, J. A., & Schwartz, A. A. (1995). A history of facilitated communication: Science, pseudoscience, and antiscience. American Psychologist, 50, 750-765. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.50.9.750

Full-Text Article without a DOI

Bianco, A. & Zellner, W. (2003, October 6). Is Wal-Mart too powerful? Harvard Business Review, 38, 100-104. Retrieved from

Article in an Internet-only newsletter

Waufton, K.K. (1999, April). Dealing with anthrax. Telehealth News, 3(2).  Retrieved from

Internet technical or research reports

University of California, San Francisco, Institute for Health and Aging. (1996, November). Chronic care in America: A 21st century challenge (Report No. here if available). Retrieved from the Robert Wood Foundation website:

Document created by private organization, no page numbers, no date

Greater Hattiesburg Civic Awareness Group, Task Force on Sheltered Programs. (n.d.). Fund-raising efforts. Retrieved from

Document from university program or department

McNeese, M.N. (2001). Using technology in educational settings. Retrieved from University of Southern Mississippi, Educational Leadership and Research website:

Message posted to a newsgroup, online forum, discussion group or mailing list

Zelner, T. (2009, January 8). Re: Librarians and Information Literacy [Online forum comment].  Retrieved from

Blair, J.  (2008, June 5). Re: Proxy server problems [Electronic mailing list message].  Retrieved from http://tech.groups/

Citing computer software

Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (Version 2) [Computer Software].  Englewood, NJ:  Biostat.

Disclaimer: USM Libraries offer this handout as a guide only. We cannot offer suggestions or interpretations about citations. Please refer to the actual Style Manual or your teacher for clarifications.

Last modified: September 2009

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