APA Style Guide 7th Edition

APA Style Guide 7th Edition Reference List Examples

Getting Started

  • PLEASE BE SURE TO DOUBLE SPACE CITATIONS. (For space saving reasons, the citations below are single spaced.)
  • APA requires a hanging indent for all reference list citations.
  • Entitle your reference list "References."
  • Alphabetize the works.
  • DOIs and URLs should be presented as hyperlinks.

If your source does not appear on this page, consult the APA 7th edition style manual available on Reserve or in the Reference Collections of Cook Library and the Gulf Coast Library.

Books - Single author

Fincher-Kiefer, R. (2019). How the body shapes knowledge: Empirical support for
embodied cognition
. American Psychological
Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000136-000

Include the DOI or URL associated with the book if available. Do not add a period after the DOI / URL.

Books - Multiple authors

Kamruzzaman, J., Begg, R., & Sarker, R. A. (2006). Artificial neural networks in
finance and manufacturing
. Idea Group Pub.

Books – Group or corporate authorship

Institute of Financial Education. (1982). Managing personal funds. Midwestern.

Books - No author identified

Experimental psychology. (1938). Holt.

Book chapters

Aron, L., Botella, M., & Lubart, T. (2019). Culinary arts: Talent and their development.
In R. F. Subotnik, P. Olszewski-Kubilius, & F. C. Worrell (Eds.), The
psychology of high performance: Developing human potential into domain-
specific talent
(pp. 345–359). American Psychological
Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000120-016


The 7th edition of APA does not differentiate between the format of the books (e.g., print or electronic). Thus, cite an e-book the same way you would cite a print book. Always add a DOI or URL if available. If the book does not have a DOI and comes from an academic research database, end the book reference after the publisher name. Database information is not required for e-books.

Journal articles with DOI

Grady, J. S., Her, M., Moreno, G., Perez, C., & Yelinek, J. (2019). Emotions in
storybooks: A comparison of storybooks that represent ethnic and racial
groups in the United States. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 8(3), 207–
217. https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000185

Journal articles without DOI

Purnell, M., Walsh, S., & Milone, M. (2004). Oncology nursing education: Teaching
strategies that work. Nursing Education Perspectives, 25(6), 304-308.

If the journal article does not have a DOI but does have a URL that will resolve for readers (e.g., it is from an online journal that is not part of a database), include the URL of the article at the end of the reference. If the journal article does not have a DOI or a URL, end the reference after the page range.

For a work with up to 20 authors, include all of the names in the reference.

For journal articles with 21 or more authors, see section 9.8 in the APA 7th edition style manual.

Newspaper articles – print

Hess, A. (2019, January 3). Cats who take direction. The New York Times, C1.

Newspaper articles – online

Carey, B. (2019, March 22). Can we get better at forgetting? The New York
. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/22/health/memory-forgetting-psychology.html


For dissertations retrieved from ProQuest's Dissertations & Theses Database, use the following example:

Hollander, M. M. (2017). Resistance to authority: Methodological innovations and new
lessons from the Milgram experiment
(Publication No. 10289373) [Doctoral
dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison]. ProQuest Dissertations and
Theses Global.

Web sites

National Institute of Mental Health. (2018, July). Anxiety disorders. U.S. Department of Health
and Human Services, National Institutes of
Health. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/anxiety-disorders/index.shtml

Monteverde, M. (2011). Budgeting and money
. https://rosenpub.net/articles/budgeting.html

Provide as specific a date as is available on the web site. This might be a year only; a year and month; or a year, month, and day. No retrieval date is needed for web sites unless the source material may change over time (e.g., blogs).

Online Videos (e.g., YouTube)

Fogarty, M. [Grammar Girl]. (2016, September 30). How to diagram a sentence
(absolute basics). [Video].


Forman, M. (Director). (1975). One flew over the cuckoo’s nest. [Film]. United Artists.

Musical Recordings

Beyoncé. (2016). Formation [Song]. On Lemonade. Parkwood; Columbia.

Bowie, D. (2016). Blackstar [Album]. Columbia.

Unpublished interviews

Unpublished interviews and other non-archived communications (e.g., emails, text messages) should be cited "in-text" and do not need a reference page entry. They are what the Publication Manual of the APA calls "personal communications" and so "do not provide recoverable data."


Disclaimer: USM Libraries offer these examples as a guide only. We cannot offer suggestions or interpretations about citations. Please refer to the actual style manual or your instructor for clarifications.

Last modified: January 2020